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The oldest surgical texts which describe 48 surgical cases, 27 of which are related to head injuries. It is believed that this papyrus was found in the tomb of a physician and that it was written by Imhotep (2655–2600 bc), who served under the King Djoser. Imhotep was an architect, king’s advisor, and one of the earliest recorded physicians. He founded a medical school in Memphis, where he treated patients. Egyptologist James Peter Allen states that “The Greeks equated him with their own god of medicine, Asklepios, although ironically there is no evidence that Imhotep himself was a physician [1].


1              Elhadi, A.M., Kalb, S., Perez-Orribo, L., Little, A.S., Spetzler, R.F., and Preul, M.C.: ‘The journey of discovering skull base anatomy in ancient Egypt and the special influence of Alexandria’, Neurosurgical focus, 2012, 33, (2), pp. E2

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