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Ibn-Sina (Avicenna)

Avicenna (Ibn-Sina; 980-1037) is considered as a father of modern medicine (Figure 1). It was he who first recognized ‘physiological psychology’ for the treatment of illness involving emotions. He was a pioneer in


 Esagil-kin-apli was a Babylonian physician who served the king during the first Babylonian dynasty early in the 2nd millennium BC (around 1069-1046 BC). Among his accomplishments were his additions to the (Diagnostic Handbook),


Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (129 A.D. – c. 200/c. 216), sometimes known as Galen of Pergamon, born in the ancient city of Pergamon (present-day Bergama, Turkey). Was a physician, surgeon and philosopher in the


Hippocrates of Kos (c. 460 – c. 370 BC), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), who is considered one of the most outstanding figures in


Erasistratus was a physician of the Alexandrian era (c.305 BC – c.240 BC), who, together with Herophilus founded the School of Anatomy of Alexandria. A pioneer in observing and describing the human anatomy

Alcmaeon of Croton

Alcmaeon of Croton lived in the city of Crotone in Magna Graecia (now southern Italy) around the beginning of the 5th Century BC. He was a philosopher-physician. His works cover topics ranging from