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Sushruta was an ancient Indian surgeon who lived in India between 1000 – 800 BC, He was considered the father of medicine and surgery in India as a result of his achievements in

Meditation in Ancient India

Meditation has existed for a long time specially in ancient Indian civilization, where the first evidence found for the practice of meditation was from around more than 1500BC in religious books and art

Arabs and Anesthesia

The Arabic physicians gave a detailed description of the pharmacology of important narcotics such as opium, hyoscyamus and hashish . This is why Burton (1886) stated that “anesthetics have been used in surgery