Esagil-kin-apli was a Babylonian physician who served the king during the first Babylonian dynasty early in the 2nd millennium BC (around 1069-1046 BC). Among his accomplishments were his additions to the (Diagnostic Handbook), a medical treatise a which uses symptoms to ascertain etiology, frequently supernatural, and prognosis, which became the received text during the first millennium, created by various authors in Babylonia throughout the first millennium BC. Esagil-kin-apli’s additions were based on a logical set of axioms and assumptions, including the need to inspect the symptoms of a patient in order to come up with a diagnosis. He felt one could also use the symptoms to ascertain etiology and prognosis. He was a “prominent citizen of Borsippa” from a learned family as he was referred to as the “son” of Assalluḫi-mansum, the apkallu, or sage, of Hammurabi’s time, c. 1792–1750 BCE.